Fisheries and Land Resources

Forestry and Agrifoods

White Spruce



  • 7.5 to 12.5 cm. long needle-shaped leaves
  • stiff, sharp-pointed
  • 4-sided in cross section
  • often crowded towards the upper side of the twigs, ranging from green to bluish-green
  • produces a pungent odour when crushed and for this reason is often referred to as "cat spruce"


  • 4-5 cm. in length
  • cylindrical shaped with slightly rounded close fitting scales
  • light green in colour, turning brown and opening at maturity in autumn
  • cones fall during the winter or early spring


  • thin and scaly or flaky
  • ash-brown in colour
  • inner bark is silvery-white streaked with reddish-brown layers


  • one of the most widely spread spruces in mainland Canada
  • only sparsely spread throughout Newfoundland and Labrador
  • often growing to over 30m. in height and up to 1.5 m. in diameter
  • prefers to grow alone in abandoned fields, but can be found among Black Spruce, White Birch and Balsam Fir in rich, moist soil along streams and lakes
  • economic value to Newfoundland is very little due to its scarcity


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