Fisheries and Land Resources

Forestry and Agrifoods

Black Spruce



  • 1-2 cm in length
  • needle-like four-sided in cross section
  • dark bluish-green, without lustre, surrounding whole twig


  • oval
  • purplish-green
  • 1-4 cm in length
  • roughly toothed scales which open only slightly
  • gradually releases seed throughout the winter
  • stays in tree for many years
  • turn to brown at maturity


  • thin and scaly
  • greyish to reddish-brown
  • deep olive green inner bark


  • most important and valuable pulpwood species in Newfoundland
  • grows 9-12 m in height with a 15-30 cm diameter
  • distinct by sparse, drooping upturned branches
  • compact, club-like crown
  • grows best on well-drained, sandy soil
  • also grows on many different sites, including sphagnum bogs, pure, dense stands or burnover areas in association with Larch and sometimes Aspen
  • heat from forest fires opens the Black Spruce cones releasing seed to naturally regenerate burns in Newfoundland
  • common to reproduce by "layering" on very wet sites, where moss covers lower branches, causing them to develop into new trees



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