Fisheries and Land Resources

Forestry and Agrifoods

Balsam Fir



  • flat, needle like
  • 2-3 cm in length
  • rounded or notched at tip
  • dark shiny green on top, whitish on bottom
  • usually appear two-ranked


  • 5-10 cm in length
  • oblong-shaped
  • dark purple resinous cone with fan-shaped scales with short, pointed bracts
  • after maturing in September, cones disintegrate leaving an erect central stock


  • smooth
  • pale grey on young stalks with numerous resin blisters
  • somewhat roughened, scaly red-brown on mature trees
  • very old trunks have small irregular plates with few or no resin blisters


  • most common species in Newfoundland
  • grows best on moist well-drained soils in pure or mixed stands
  • ranges in height from 15-21 m and 30-50 cm in diameter
  • wood is used extensively for pulp and lumber
  • favorite Newfoundland Christmas tree
  • species has a history of insect attacks from insects such as the Spruce Budworm,Hemlock Looper, and the Balsam Wooly Aphid


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